Charcot, Janet, and Freud all noted that fragmented memories of traumatic events dominated the mental life of many of their patient and built their theories about the nature and treatment of psychopathology on this recognition. Janet 75 thought that traumatic memories of traumatic events persist as unassimilated fixed ideas that act as foci for the development of alternate states of consciousness, including dissociative phenomena, such as fugue states, amnesias, and chronic states of helplessness and depression. Unbidden memories of the trauma may return as physical sensations, horrific images or nightmares, behavioral reenactments, or a combination of these.
Early literature[ edit ] Historical descriptions of people or characters are sometimes noted in discussions of psychopathy, with claims of superficial resemblance or retrospective diagnosis.
InFrench psychiatrist Philippe Pinel described without moral judgment patients who appeared mentally unimpaired but who nonetheless engaged in impulsive and self-defeating acts.
American Benjamin Rush wrote in about individuals with an apparent "perversion of the moral faculties", which he saw as a sign of innate defective organization.
He also saw such people as objects of compassion whose mental alienation could be helped, even if that was in prison or what he referred to as the " christian system of criminal jurisprudence ".
Generally Prichard referred more to eccentric behaviour than, as had Pinel, out of control passions. Prichard's diagnosis came into widespread use in Europe for several decades.
None of these concepts are comparable to current specific constructs of psychopathy, or even to the broader category of personality disorders.
Moreover, "moral" did not necessarily refer at that time to morality but to the psychological or emotional faculties.
Notably the Italian physician Cesare Lombroso rejected the view that criminality could occur in anyone and sought to identify particular " born criminals " who he thought showed certain physical signs, such as proportionately long arms or a low and narrow forehead.
Treatments of physical conditions by psychological or spiritualist methods might be referred to as psychopathic. German psychiatrist von Feuchtersleben 's The Principles of Medical Psychology, which was translated into English, used it in this sense, as well as the roughly equivalent new term psychosisnow traced back to Karl Friedrich Canstatt 's Handbuch der Medicinischen Klinik The use of the term in a criminological context was popularised by a high-profile legal case in Russia between andconcerning the murder of a girl who had previously lived in Britain for some time, Sarah Becker Sarra Bekker.
The owner of the pawnbroker shop in which she worked and where her body was found, a retired military man Mr Mironovich, was eventually convicted on circumstantial evidence and imprisoned. In the meantime, however, a Ms Semenova had handed herself in saying she had killed Becker while trying to steal jewellery with her lover Bezak, a married policeman, though she soon recanted and changed her confession.
Semenova was found not guilty following testimony from eminent Russian psychiatrist Prof Ivan M. Balinsky, who described her as a psychopath, still then a very general term. Dictionaries to this day note this as the first use of the noun, via British or American articles which had suggested a known murderer had been released and in some cases that psychopaths should be immediately hanged.
He used it to refer to various kinds of dysfunction or strange conduct noted in patients in the absence of obvious mental illness or retardation. Koch was a Christian and also influenced by the degeneration theory popular in Europe at the time, though he referred to both congenital and acquired types.
Habitual criminality was only a small part of his concept but the German public soon used the shortened version "inferiors" to refer to anyone supposedly suffering from an inherent 'constitutional' disposition toward crime.
Emil KraepelinKurt Schneider and Karl Birnbaum developed categorisation schemes under the heading 'psychopathic personality', only some subtypes of which were thought to have particular links to antisocial behaviour.
This covered abnormalities in the emotional and volitional spheres associated with episodic disturbances which did not fit into the established categories of psychosis: In the UK the Mental Deficiency Act included the category of moral imbecileswho were not intellectually idiots but displayed from an early age an alleged mental defect coupled with alleged vicious or criminal propensities, and on whom punishment has little or no deterrent effect.
Cyril Burt and others pointed out that 'psychopathic personality' was used in a broader and somewhat different way in America than in the UK. Partridge influentially narrowed the definition of psychopathy to antisocial personality, and from suggested that a more apt name for it would be sociopathy.
Cleckleyfirst published in and with revised editions for several decades, is considered a seminal work which provided a vivid series of case studies of individuals described as psychopaths. Cleckley proposed 16 characteristics of psychopathy, derived mainly from his work with male psychiatric patients in a locked institution.
The title refers to the "mask" of normal functioning that Cleckley thought concealed the disorganization, amorality and disorder of the psychopathic personality. The first version of the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM in did not use the term psychopathy as a diagnosis, but "sociopathic personality disturbance".
There were four subtypes called 'reactions' after Adolf Meyer:Start studying Chapter 2 Psych Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
My One Minute BCPS Study Guide. Date January 14, Author By Eric Christianson Category BCPS. A few folks out there have created a BCPS study guide that I was extremely grateful to have as I prepared to take and pass my exam.
USA Swimming is the National Governing Body for the sport of swimming in the United States. We are a ,member service organization that promotes the culture of swimming by creating opportunities for swimmers and coaches of all backgrounds to participate and . PSYCH Study Guide: Exam 1 AU18 Updated 10/5/ There will be more updates Chapter 1: Introducing the World of Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of _____.
Nature vs. nurture Four levels of analysis Fundamental Concepts in Psychology Priming Automatic vs. controlled processing. During the formative years of contemporary psychiatry much attention was paid to the continuing role of past traumatic experiences on the current lives of people.
Course Summary Psychology Intro to Psychology has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities.