Cultural Studies In any contemporary society there aren't only cultures, but also a number of subculture and countercultures that develop within society.
Groupings[ edit ] Judith Lorber distinguishes between three broad kinds of feminist discourses: In her typology, gender reform feminisms are rooted in the political philosophy of liberalism with its emphasis on individual rights.
Gender resistant feminisms focus on specific behaviors and group dynamics through which women are kept in a subordinate position, even in subcultures which claim to support gender equality. Gender revolution feminisms seek to disrupt the social order through deconstructing its concepts and categories and analyzing the cultural reproduction of inequalities.
The mainstream feminist movement traditionally focused on political and legal reform, and has its roots in first-wave feminism and in the historical liberal feminism of the 19th and earlyth centuries.
InAngela Davis referred to mainstream feminism as "bourgeois feminism". Mainstream feminism has also been accused of being commercialized,  and of focusing exclusively on issues that are less contentious in the western world today [update]such as women's political participation or female education access.
Radical feminists sometimes criticize mainstream feminists as part of "a system of patriarchy". Emma Goldmanpioneer anarcha-feminist author and activist.
Anarcha-feminism also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. It generally views patriarchy as a manifestation of involuntary hierarchy. Anarcha-feminists believe that the struggle against patriarchy is an essential part of class struggle and of the anarchist struggle against the state.
Susan Brown puts it, "as anarchism is a political philosophy that opposes all relationships of power, it is inherently feminist". Susan Brownand the eco-feminist Starhawk.
Black and womanist[ edit ] Angela Davis speaking at the University of Alberta on 28 March Black feminism argues that sexismclass oppression, and racism are inextricably bound together. The NBFO also helped inspire the founding of the Boston-based organization the Combahee River Collective in which not only led the way for crucial antiracist activism in Boston through the decade, but also provided a blueprint for Black feminism that still stands a quarter of a century later.
Anything less than this is not feminism, but merely female self-aggrandizement. It emerged after the early feminist movements that were led specifically by white women, were largely white middle-class movements, and had generally ignored oppression based on racism and classism.
Alice Walker and other womanists pointed out that black women experienced a different and more intense kind of oppression from that of white women.
Ecofeminists see the domination of women as stemming from the same ideologies that bring about the domination of the environment.
Western patriarchal systems, where men own and control the land, are seen as responsible for the oppression of women and destruction of the natural environment. Ecofeminists argue that the men in power control the land, and therefore are able to exploit it for their own profit and success.
In this situation, ecofeminists consider women to be exploited by men in power for their own profit, success, and pleasure. Thus ecofeminists argue that women and the environment are both exploited as passive pawns in the race to domination.
Ecofeminists argue that those people in power are able to take advantage of them distinctly because they are seen as passive and rather helpless. As a way of repairing social and ecological injustices, ecofeminists feel that women must work towards creating a healthy environment and ending the destruction of the lands that most women rely on to provide for their families.
Vandana Shiva claims that women have a special connection to the environment through their daily interactions with it that has been ignored.
She says that "women in subsistence economies, producing and reproducing wealth in partnership with nature, have been experts in their own right of holistic and ecological knowledge of nature's processes.
But these alternative modes of knowing, which are oriented to the social benefits and sustenance needs are not recognized by the capitalist reductionist paradigm, because it fails to perceive the interconnectedness of nature, or the connection of women's lives, work and knowledge with the creation of wealth.
It is distinguished from Anglophone feminism by an approach which is more philosophical and literary. Its writings tend to be effusive and metaphorical, being less concerned with political doctrine and generally focused on theories of "the body. From the s onwards, the work of artist and psychoanalyst Bracha Ettinger has influenced literary criticism, art history, and film theory.
Traditionally, during the 19th and early 20th century, liberal feminism had the same meaning as "bourgeois feminism" or "mainstream feminism," and its broadest sense the term liberal feminism overlaps strongly with mainstream feminism. Liberal feminists sought to abolish political, legal and other forms of discrimination of women to allow them the same opportunities as men.
Liberal feminists sought to alter the structure of society to ensure the equal treatment of women. More recently, liberal feminism has additionally taken on a more narrow meaning which emphasizes women's ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
In this sense, liberal feminism uses the personal interactions between men and women as the place from which to transform society. This use of the term differs from liberal feminism in the historical sense, which emphasized political and legal reforms and held that women's own actions and choices alone were not sufficient to bring about gender equality.
Issues important to modern liberal feminists include reproductive and abortion rights, sexual harassment, voting, education, " equal pay for equal work ", affordable childcare, affordable health care, and bringing to light the frequency of sexual and domestic violence against women.
It holds that women, as well as men, have a right to such freedom due to their status as self-owners. Anarcha-feminism combines feminist and anarchist beliefs, embodying classical libertarianism rather than contemporary minarchist libertarianism. Recently, Wendy McElroy has defined a position, which she labels "ifeminism" or "individualist feminism", that combines feminism with anarcho-capitalism or contemporary minarchist libertarianismand she argued that a pro- capitalist and anti-state position is compatible with an emphasis on equal rights and empowerment for women.Culture and Globalization Most studies of globalization tend to focus on changes occurring in the economic and political spheres.
The details of those issues, such as tariff rates and exposure to foreign culture can undermine their own cultural identity. Is the globalized world becoming more homogenous?
If so, does this mean the end of cultural authenticity in the distant future? Update Cancel. ad by Zoho. Automate your business with Zoho One.
we are more like a stew with various groups and places keeping their own culture within a larger society. There is no true “American” culture.
Tourism is an important transmitter of globalization in Nepal. It has significant impacts on societies and cultures in the destinations.
It seems a process of acculturation or westernization or Americanization and leads globalized homogenous society and culture. It has been a major source of intercultural contact.
Globalization and Culture: Homogeneity,Diversity, Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung Identity,Liberty „cultural“ critiques of trade. Advocates of barriers to trade insist that free trade contrasted the commercial, open, dynamic English society he had observed with the greater deference to authority of his native France.
The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts.
The Samhitas date to roughly – BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin