Inthe British colony of New Zealand granted women the right to vote.
Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not or do not apply the term to themselves.
Those historians use the label " protofeminist " to describe earlier movements. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote.
The second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women. The third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the s.
First-wave feminism After selling her home, Emmeline Pankhurstpictured in New York City intravelled constantly, giving speeches throughout Britain and the United States.
In the Netherlands, Wilhelmina Drucker — fought successfully for the vote and equal rights for women through political and feminist organizations she founded. Simone Veil —former French Minister of Health — She made easier access to contraceptive pills and legalized abortion —75 — which was her greatest and hardest achievement.
Louise Weiss along with other Parisian suffragettes in The newspaper headline reads "The Frenchwoman Must Vote. In the UK and eventually the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women.
By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave woman the right of custody of their children for the first time.
For example, Victoria passed legislation inNew South Wales inand the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between and Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffragethough some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexualreproductiveand economic rights as well.
This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in In this was extended to all women over Anthonywho each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, which asserts that men and women are equal under God.
The term first wave was coined retroactively to categorize these western movements after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused on fighting social and cultural inequalities, as well political inequalities.
InQasim Aminconsidered the "father" of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women. The Consultative Assembly of Algiers of proposed on 24 March to grant eligibility to women but following an amendment by Fernand Grenierthey were given full citizenship, including the right to vote.
Grenier's proposition was adopted 51 to In Mayfollowing the November electionsthe sociologist Robert Verdier minimized the " gender gap ", stating in Le Populaire that women had not voted in a consistent way, dividing themselves, as men, according to social classes.
During the baby boom period, feminism waned in importance. Wars both World War I and World War II had seen the provisional emancipation of some women, but post-war periods signalled the return to conservative roles.
Feminists in these countries continued to fight for voting rights. In Switzerlandwomen gained the right to vote in federal elections in ;  but in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women obtained the right to vote on local issues only inwhen the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.
Three prior referendums held inand had failed to secure women's right to vote. Photograph of American women replacing men fighting in Europe, Feminists continued to campaign for the reform of family laws which gave husbands control over their wives.HISTORY AND THEORY OF FEMINISM The term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women.
Ultimately, the suffrage movement provided political training for some of the early women pioneers in Congress, but its internal divisions foreshadowed the persistent disagreements among women in Congress and among women’s rights activists after the passage of the 19th Amendment.
The history of feminist politics and theory is often talked of as consisting of three “waves.” First-wave feminism is generally associated with the women’s suffrage movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
[Rymph's] well-researched book does an excellent job of chronicling the struggles of Republican women to define their place within the GOP An important contribution to recent scholarship examining the relationship between feminism, conservatism, and women's political activism.
Women’s Suffrage at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century. An early champion of women’s suffrage, John Stuart Mill introduced a bill in Parliament that would grant women’s suffrage over sixty years before full suffrage was granted.
Feminism and Democracy: Women’s Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, Cambridge. HISTORY AND THEORY OF FEMINISM The term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women.