Describe the gross anatomy of the

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Describe the gross anatomy of the

Skeleton of a diamondback rattlesnake Reptiles are a class of animals comprising turtlestuataraslizardssnakes and crocodiles. They are tetrapodsbut the snakes and a few species of lizard either have no limbs or their limbs are much reduced in size. Their bones are better ossified and their skeletons stronger than those of amphibians.

The teeth are conical and mostly uniform in size. The surface cells of the epidermis are modified into horny scales which create a waterproof layer. Reptiles are unable to use their skin for respiration as do amphibians and have a more efficient respiratory system drawing air into their lungs by expanding their chest walls.

The heart resembles that of the amphibian but there is a septum which more completely separates the oxygenated and deoxygenated bloodstreams. The reproductive system has evolved for internal fertilization, with a copulatory organ present in most species. The eggs are surrounded by amniotic membranes which prevents them from drying out and are laid on land, or develop internally in some species.

The bladder is small as nitrogenous waste is excreted as uric acid. They have an inflexible trunk encased in a horny carapace above and a plastron below. These are formed from bony plates embedded in the dermis which are overlain by horny ones and are partially fused with the ribs and spine.

The neck is long and flexible and the head and the legs can be drawn back inside the shell. Turtles are vegetarians and the typical reptile teeth have been replaced by sharp, horny plates.

In aquatic species, the front legs are modified into flippers. There is one living species, Sphenodon punctatus. The skull has two openings fenestrae on either side and the jaw is rigidly attached to the skull.

There is one row of teeth in the lower jaw and this fits between the two rows in the upper jaw when the animal chews. The teeth are merely projections of bony material from the jaw and eventually wear down.

The brain and heart are more primitive than those of other reptiles, and the lungs have a single chamber and lack bronchi. The tuatara has a well-developed parietal eye on its forehead.

This results in the jaws being less rigidly attached which allows the mouth to open wider. Lizards are mostly quadrupeds, with the trunk held off the ground by short, sideways-facing legs, but a few species have no limbs and resemble snakes. Lizards have moveable eyelids, eardrums are present and some species have a central parietal eye.

The skeleton consists of a skull, a hyoid bone, spine and ribs though a few species retain a vestige of the pelvis and rear limbs in the form of pelvic spurs. The bar under the second fenestra has also been lost and the jaws have extreme flexibility allowing the snake to swallow its prey whole.

Snakes lack moveable eyelids, the eyes being covered by transparent "spectacle" scales.

Describe the gross anatomy of the

They do not have eardrums but can detect ground vibrations through the bones of their skull. Their forked tongues are used as organs of taste and smell and some species have sensory pits on their heads enabling them to locate warm-blooded prey. The head and trunk are dorso-ventrally flattened and the tail is laterally compressed.

It undulates from side to side to force the animal through the water when swimming. The tough keratinized scales provide body armour and some are fused to the skull. The nostrils, eyes and ears are elevated above the top of the flat head enabling them to remain above the surface of the water when the animal is floating.

Valves seal the nostrils and ears when it is submerged. Unlike other reptiles, crocodilians have hearts with four chambers allowing complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

Bird anatomy Part of a wing. Birds are endothermichave a high metabolic ratea light skeletal system and powerful muscles. The long bones are thin, hollow and very light. Air sac extensions from the lungs occupy the centre of some bones. The sternum is wide and usually has a keel and the caudal vertebrae are fused.

There are no teeth and the narrow jaws are adapted into a horn-covered beak. The eyes are relatively large, particularly in nocturnal species such as owls.The Eldar, or Aeldari as they were known in the Eldar Lexicon before the fall of their lost realm, or the Asuryani (followers of Asuryan) as they refer to themselves, are an ancient humanoid alien race whose vast empire once extended the width and breadth of the known galaxy.

The Aeldari Empire. 7 Initial Quiz 1. Define the terms Anatomy and Physiology. 2. List the levels of organization List the levels of organization of the Human Body from least comof the Human Body from least complex to plex to.

NAME _____ LAB TIME/DATE _____ REVIEW SHEET exercise30 Anatomy of the Heart Review Sheet 30 Gross Anatomy of the Human Heart. Anatomy (Greek anatomē, "dissection") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

Describe the gross anatomy of the

Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, embryology, comparative anatomy.


Sep 19,  · The lymphatic system is unique, in that it is a 1-way system that returns lymph fluid via vessels to the cardiovascular system for eventual elimination of toxic byproducts by end organs, such as the kidney, liver, colon, skin, and lungs.

Gross Anatomy. Lymph. Lymph is a fluid derived from blood plasma. It is pushed out through.

Anatomy Notes: Referred pain