Perceptions of technology Science and technology Among the insights that arise from this review of the history of technology is the light it throws on the distinction between science and technology. The history of technology is longer than and distinct from the history of science.
Types of Cloning a. When scientists wish to replicate a specific gene to facilitate more thorough study, molecular cloning is implemented in order to generate multiple copies of the DNA fragment of interest.
In this process, the specific DNA fragment is transferred from one organism into a self-replicating genetic element, e. Because this kind of cloning does not result in the genesis of a human organism, it has no reproductive intent or goals, and it does not result in the creation and destruction of embryos, there is little to no contention regarding its use.
Therapeutic Cloning Embryonic stem cells are derived from human embryos at approximately five days post-fertilization, in the blastocyst stage of development. Because of their plasticity, embryonic stem cells can be manipulated to become any cell in the human body, e. Many scientists hope that, with proper research and application, embryonic stem cells can be used to treat a wide variety of afflictions, e.
One current obstacle for the successful use of embryonic stem cells for disease therapy concerns immunological rejection. If a patient were to receive stem cell therapy in order to treat some affliction, her body may reject the stem cells for the same reason human bodies have a tendency to reject donated organs: Ina California research team succeeded in creating embryos via SCNT and growing them to the blastocyst stage French et al.
The ovum is then artificially induced to begin dividing as if it had been naturally fertilized usually via the use of an electrical current. Once the embryo is approximately five days old, the stem cells are removed, cultured, differentiated to the desired type of body cell, and inserted back into the patient the genetic donor in this case.
Since the embryo was a genetic duplicate of the patient, there would be no immunological rejection. One use of this technology, for example, is to help treat individuals in the aftermath of a heart attack.
It may also be possible to use therapeutic cloning to repair defective genes by homologous recombination Doetschman et al. Cellular models of diseases can be developed as well, along with the ability to test drug efficacy: The tissue could be experimented upon to understand why disease occurs.
The End of the World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction 1st Edition. History of technology - The 20th century: Recent history is notoriously difficult to write, because of the mass of material and the problem of distinguishing the significant from the insignificant among events that have virtually the power of contemporary experience. In respect to the recent history of technology, however, one fact stands out clearly: despite the immense achievements of. Science/Technology Documentaries "Science is but a perversion of itself unless it has as its ultimate goal the betterment of humanity." –Nikola Tesla.
Therapeutic cloning is controversial because isolating the stem cells from the embryo destroys it. Many individuals regard the human embryo as a person with moral rightsand so they consider its destruction to be morally impermissible.
Moreover, because the embryos are created with the explicit intention to destroy them, there are concerns that this treats the embryos in a purely instrumental manner Annas et al. Although some ethicists are in favor of using surplus embryos from fertility treatments for research since the embryos were slated for destruction in any casethey are simultaneously against creating embryos solely for research due to the concern that doing so treats the embryos purely as means Outka, ; Peters, Unlike therapeutic cloning, the cloned embryo is transferred into a uterus of a female of the same species and would be, upon successful implantation, allowed to gestate as a naturally fertilized egg would.The evolution of technology has constantly had a massive impact on the human race at every stage of societal development.
Modern world is unimaginable without things such as electricity, computers, vehicles, and much more. Prof Stephen Hawking, one of the world's leading scientists, warns that artificial intelligence "could spell the end of the human race".
Africa has the world's oldest record of human technological achievement: the oldest stone tools in the world have been found in eastern Africa, and later evidence for tool production by our hominin ancestors has been found across Sub-Saharan r-bridal.com history of science and technology in Africa since then has, however, received relatively little attention compared to other regions of the.
Nuclear safety technology and regulation. The goal of the NEA in this area is to assist member countries in ensuring high standards of safety in the use of nuclear energy, by supporting the development of effective and efficient regulation and oversight of nuclear installations, and by helping to maintain and advance the scientific and technological knowledge base.
If your life is saved by the advent of a certain technology, then the benefits certainly outweigh the risks. If you die as the result of a catastrophic risk caused by the advent of a certain technology then the benefits do not outweigh the risk.
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